RĀMĀYANA - ADVAYAM
LATE SRI R. VISVANATHA SASTRI
(With Apologies to the author: The attempt at translation has been done by V. Krishnamurthy, the son of the author. At many places the translation does not seem to catch the insight of the original. It is hoped this will provide a challenge for researchers in the field)
Aum gam vānīm gurum natvā vakshye rāmāyanādvayam |
rī rāmo hyayyate yatra svānanyah purushottamah || 1||
Om. Making obeisance to Ganesa, Sarasvati and the Guru, I narrate Ramayana-advayam (the non-duality enshrined in the Ramayana) wherein pervades Sri Rama the supreme personality, non-different from the Self.
Rāma eva param brahma rāma eva param tapah |
rāma eva param satyam rāmān nāsty anyad adbhutam || 2 ||
Rama is the transcendental Brahman; Rama is the supreme (goal of all) Penance; Rama is the Absolute Truth; other than Rama there is nothing significant.
ricakre triputīrupe rājamānam ca yan mahah |
ayodhyāyām devapuryām rām jyotir nirgunam param || 3 ||
He shines as the effervescence in the three-fold form of the Sri Chakra (of the Goddess) and as the formless Supreme (single-syllable) RAM in the City Divine of Ayodhya (namely, the human body).
Svāntasthanagarī daivī manah padme cidambare |
svīyajyotir veshtiteti ri rāmah aranam mama || 4 ||
My refuge is Sri Rama who dwells in his own divine city, (namely) my inner Mind, in the (lotus) space of Consciousness, radiating it by His own Light.
rimatpanchāksharajyotih rāmo jnānamayah ivah |
advaitānandamagnasya nānātvam nayati dhruvam || 5 ||
Rama is the glory of the five-syllabled mantra (panchakshara) shining as Siva, the fullness of Knowledge. When one is immersed in this bliss of non-duality, the multiplicity of the world vanishes without fail.
Rāmeti dvyaksharo mantrah panchāshtāksharasāratah |
sarvādhikārasiddhyartham vihitah kalitārakah || 6 ||
The two-syllabled mantra, namely, RA-MA, is the quintessance of both the five-lettered (mantra of Siva) and the eight-lettered (mantra of Narayana) ones. It has been prescribed (as the panacea) for crossing the darkness of the Kali and for the achievement of every purpose.
Rāmānanyat prabhā sītā labdhā paulastyahānatah |
rāvanoVhamkrtih sākshāt tajjayo rāmabānatah || 7 ||
Rama, than whom His Power (=Ray of Light) Sita
is not different.
She was redeemed by vanquishing Ravana. Ravana is none else but Ego personified (in each one of us). Victory over that Ego is possible only by the use of the Rama arrow (that is, the name, Rama).
Māyaiva dryate loke māyi rāmaca dehagah |
grhāyodhyānirgataca svāsritadvaitaāntidah || 8 ||
Māyā -- is what we see (everywhere) in the Universe. The Magician (who owns the Maya) is Rama himself, who is the indweller of this body (of ours). Coming out of the City (=cave of the heart) of Ayodhya He bestows peace from duality to those who seek refuge.
Yatpāduke samāritya bharato rāshtrapālakah |
Māyātyāgī mohahantā vivekaaranam gatah || 9 ||
Yat, -- meaning, He, whose sandals were obtained by Bharata, makes a King of the latter. He renounces Māyā (i.e., Sita), kills Delusion (=Moha, that is, Maricha) and takes refuge in Discretion (that is, Sugriva)
Nasyāvatārāh kapayah sītānveshana udyatāh |
setau lingam ca sampūjya svasmin rakshāmsi hanti ca ||10||
Na -- meaning, Siva and His ganas, have reincaaarnated as the host of monkeys. They spread out everywhere looking for Sita (and succeed). (Rama) worships the Siva Lingam at the seashore and kills the Rakshasas (Evil) in Oneself.
Makāro mangalam vakti svārājyarīpradas-tathā |
Mānishādeti mantrena manasi sthāpyate harih || 11 ||
Ma -- the syllable that speaks of a prosperous ending and bestows the Wealth of Self-hood. And one establishes this in the Mind by the mantra beginning with Mā-nishāda (the initial sloka which was the harbinger of Valmikis Ramayana).
Etam rāmāyanam mantram vedasāram ca muktidam |
guror labdhvā ca vālmīkih gāyethām iti ishyakau || 12 ||
This Ramayana Mantra, which is the essence of the Vedas, which bestows Release (from Samsara) was got from the Preceptor (Narada) by Valmiki and was transmitted to his two disciples for being sung (aloud in the world) .
Abravīn madhuram geyam iti coditavān rshih |
ramāyanārnave magnau vālmīkir nāradoVpi ca || 13 ||
Sing it sweet, preached the Sage. Valmiki as well as Narada were immersed to the brim in the ocean(-like bliss) of Ramayana.
Sthitaprajnasusamvāde tasyaiva caritam madhu |
vānīkatākshād udbhutām vācam arthoVnudhāvati || 14 ||
Out of this blessed conversation about the Man of confirmed wisdom (Sthita-prajna) arose the honey-like history of Him (Rama) by the divine grace of Goddess Saraswati. The words flowed first. Meaning followed suit.
Tapasvinoca samvādāt tapasvī cādhikāry api |
vijijnāsasva tapasā ceti ruty anuāsanam || 15 ||
From the words of the Tapasvi -- ascetic who had the power and strength of Askesis (=tapas) -- the listener who was equally a tapasvi received the message. Realise (Brahman, for yourself, by yourself) by tapas, says the Vedic Commandment.
Karmabhaktim ca vālmikih vaishto jnānam ūcivān |
prācetasau munī chettham vedam rāmāyanātmanā || 16 ||
Creator Brahmas progenies Valmiki and Vasishta -- one wrote about Karma and Bhakti and the other spoke about Jnana. Thus were the Vedas (rejuvenated) through the form of Ramayana.
Ākhyātavantau lokārtham reyase svahitāya ca |
advaitam paramam tattvam parokshārthatayā svatah || 17 ||
Both for the benefit of mankind and for their own good, they have narrated the Absolute Truth of non-duality,(sometimes) subtly and (sometimes) directly.
Ahamkāravadhāyaiva tapasotpāditam mahah |
rirāmajyotir advaitam grastam rāvanarāhunā || 18 ||
For the fall of Ego did the Supreme Light of Rama emanate from the tapas (of men and divines alike). The non-dual Sun of Rama was (for a while) eclipsed by serpent Rahu in the form of Ravana.
Ahamkāramanorajye sarveshām kunthitho gatih |
dehātmadhīr ahamkārah sarvadukhasya kāranam || 19 ||
While Ego has its sway, mans mind seeks crooked paths. Ego is nothing but the notion: I am the body and this is the cause of all misery.
Jahi atrum mahābāho yo rātīyati tam jahi |
daharastham harim jnātvā buddhau aranam ishyate || 20 ||
Vanquish this enemy of yours. That which creates obstacles must be conquered by you. Realise the Lord who lives in the confines of the heart and surrender to the (Cosmic) intellect. This is the prescription.
Guhāyodhyā durlabheti tad daranam abhīpsitam |
keavas tatparo rāmah ardhanārī warah prabhuh || 21 ||
The City of Ayodhya in the cave (of the heart) is difficult to be accessed. To view it is the ambition. The in-dweller is the Lord Rama (none other than), Kesava, (and) the half-feminine Iswara.
Kalātītā bhagavatī rāmena ca saha svasā |
lakshmanaca kalārūpah akāro vivabhāvanah || 22 ||
The Goddess Sita along with her (shadow) sister (Godess Ambika), transcends all kalās . Lakshmana is the form of kalā, the form of the syllable A (the first syllable of Aum ), the form of Viva (in the three-fold viva-taijasa-prājna Cosmic manifestation).
Nādasvarupo bharatah makārah prājnarūpakah |
bindusvarūpah atrugnah ukāras taijasātmakah || 23 ||
Bharata is nāda, the syllable ma and prājna. Satrugna is bindu, the syllable u and taijasa.
ivo makāro hanumān ukāro harināyakah |
akāro jāmbavān ātmā brahmāma iti ceritah || 24 ||
Hanuman is Siva and the syllable ma (of Aum). Sugriva is the syllable U. Jambavan, the physical spark from Creator Brahma is the syllable A .
AumkāroVshtāksharah sūkshmah rāmo nārāyano narah
bhuvo vit sūkshmadari yah svatattvam vettum arhati ||25||
The mantra Aum is the subtle essence of the eight-syllabled mantra. It is Rama, it is Narayana. He who gets to the residual substratum of the Universe deserves to know the Self-Principle.
Janmāntare kayapo yo devapū rakshitā hi sah |
tasyāvamedhe rivishnuh upayātoVbhayapradah || 26 ||
He who was Kasyapa in a previous birth -- Kasyapa who protected the divine kingdom -- in his Aswamedha sacrifice the Lord Vishnu, decided to bestow Abhaya (Fearlessness).
Devāstam aranam prāpya dvaitād vītabhayāh kshanāt |
yoVsau sarvagato vishnuh mahāsattā svarūpatah || 27 ||
The divines gave themselves up to Him as the only refuge -- Him who is the ultimate Grand Reality and who permeates and pervades everything and everywhere. In a moment they were rid of the Fear of Duality(i.e. Fear of the world outside).
Advaitā brahmanah aktih māyā pātrīm samāritā |
pāyasātmā dravībhūtā etā chatarachaturdhā || 28 ||
The Power of Brahman is unique. It was materialised as a magic vessel containing the spiritual essence in liquid form. This became divided into four parts.
Brahmopanayanāt pacāt vāishtharavane ratāh |
kartā bahir akartāntah loke vicara rāghava || 29 ||
After the ritual of Upanayana which leads (the way) to Brahman they were all engaged in listening to the teaching of Vasishta. Action outside, but untouched inside by action, thus move in the world, Rama, -- (was the teaching of Vasishta).
ItyevamupadishtoVpi svanishthāyāca notthithah |
svapūrnātmātirekena jagajjīvevarādayah || 30 ||
Na santy ajnānakāryāni rām jyotishi katham tamah |
iti vijnānasampannah payannapi na payati || 31 ||
Even though they were taught thus, (Rama) did not wake up from his Samadhi in the Self. Outside of the Atman within Oneself, there is neither the universe nor the jiva because they are the effects of Ignorance. In the effervescence of Rama, how can darkness (arise)? Endowed with this practical wisdom he does not see, even though seeing!
Evam rāmah sthithaprajnah tam cālayitum āgatah |
vivāmitro mahātejāh devaih protsāhito munih || 32 ||
It was such a Rama -- the man of confirmed wisdom -- who was iintended to be disturbed by the coming of Visvamitra the great sage, who was (himself) prodded by the divines.
Vivam mithyeti vijnāya vijno drashtā svavistrtim |
svamātradarī samyagjnah rshir yogevaro munih || 33 ||
The Sage (Visvamitra) was an adept in Yoga; knows well; sees the Self and Self only; realising that the visible universe is only an appearance, sees His own Self in all its fullest expansion (as the Universe itself).
Aham brahmaiva rāmoVsmi iti svam paripayati |
mahāvākyair vedagīrbhih vyashtyahamkāravān na hi || 34 ||
I am Brahman. I am Rama -- thus does one see oneself rightly, (as taught) by the Grand Pronouncements (of the Upanishads) and the music of the Vedas. The Individual is not the Ego or the egoist.
Avyayam bhāvam evaikam paya sarvatra sarvadā |
matputro rāma ity eva mamatām hi parityaja || 35 ||
See the One Imperishable every time and everywhere. This is my son Rama - is an attitude of possession. This should be discarded.
Mahatmāyam sarvalokaaranya iti cābravīt |
munivākyam satyam iti vaishthoVnumumoda ca || 36 ||
The words of the sage, namely, this (Rama) is a Mahatma; he is the refuge of the entire universe, -- were confirmed as true by Vasishta.
Rājadattakumārābhyām devapūh prasthito munih |
balām atibalām cāpi grāhayāmāsa āstratah || 37 ||
The Sage left for the divine city along with the two princes handed over by the King. They assimilated from him in the due manner (the two Mantras): balā and atibalā.
Kāmārame japan sandhyām aktim gunamayīm iti |
punah puna ca sandhyoktih dvaitavismaranāya hi || 38 ||
They did the sandhyopasana in the hermitage known as Kamasrama . Sandhya is the manifest Power (of the Unmanifest) . (In the Ramayana) there is mention of sandhya again and again. Indeed this is for the eradication of duality (in the mind).
āpāt prāptāh pāpayonim bodhayanty eva cādvayam |
āpān muktā api svam svam divyarūpam prapedire || 39 ||
The evil births were obtained (by the Rakshasas) because of a spell. This only confirms (the principle of ) non-duality. Once released from the spell (by the arrows of Rama) they got back their own divine forms.
Iti dryasya mithyātvam tejorūpasya satyatā |
upatasthur mantradevāh mahātmānam ca rāghavam || 40 ||
Mānasā me bhavishyadhvam ity advaitam parāmrtam |
siddhāramasthaviprā hi snānasandhyājapādibhih || 41 ||
Thus was confirmed the illusoriness of the visible universe and the reality of the Glorious Effervescence. The gods of the mantras worshipped Rama, the Mahatma. The sages of the Siddhasrama by their rituals of bath, sandhyopasana and japa, prayed to reach this non-dual supreme nectar.
Gangāvataranākhyānaravanāt padyate ca yat |
purastāt triputtī jyotih sarvatrānubhavanti te || 42 ||
They experienced the three-fold Glory, that which is reached by listening to anecdotes like the Descent of Ganga, right in front of them.
Ādhāracitsamudrācca ramimān udayaty aho |
jāhnavī saritā resthā hy uttamā vrittir ucyate || 43 ||
Satyādi sarva lokeshu nistraigunyam param padam |
gunatītam gamayati tejomayaarīrakam || 44 ||
From the Ocean of Consciousness at the base does the One with the (glorious) rays rise. Indeed the great river Ganges stands for the noblest attitude (of mind). Among the various worlds starting from Satyaloka, it takes one to the Absolute State, a state of effervescence, devoid of the three gunas, beyond the gunas.
ivaaktyātmakam tejah skāndam advaitam īritam |
shadānanah kārtikeyah shatcakreshu ca gīyate || 45 ||
The Light of Skanda, the soul of Siva-sakti, brings out the concept of non-duality. (That is why) the six-faced Kartikeya is praised in the six cakras (of the yogic body)
Sadābrahmamayī vrittih yatprasādācca labhyate |
manasturagam ālabhya cāvamedhah pade pade || 46 ||
By His Grace does one get the attitude of mind which is always fixed in Brahman. (From that stage) every step is an asvamedha yajna, the mind being the sacrificial horse.
Manonmanī manonāāt jnānānandamrtodadhih |
rirāmārnavam advaitam sarvam rāmamayam jagat || 47 ||
Once the mind is vanquished and extinguished the nectar-like ocean of bliss arising from Enlightenment (shows only ) the non-dual wave of Sri Rama flooding the entire universe.
Yajnīyam paum ālabhya manonigraha ishyate |
manasturagamedhena pūrsho yajnamayo bhavet || 48 ||
The sacrificial cow is the mind. It is the removal of the mind that is desired. In this grand horse-sacrifice (Aswa-medha) the Purusha becomes himself the yajna.
Yajnaghnavrittihananam vivāmitrasahāyatah |
mitro hi yajnapurushah cidravicaikavimakah || 49 ||
The attitudes of mind which obstruct the path of Yajna have to be destroyed with the help of Visvāmitra. Mitra the Sun is the Yajna-Purusha. The Sun of Consciousness is 21-fold.
Tadupāstyāca tattejah anusandhīyateVniam |
Tejovriddhih sadābhyāsāt viraso bāhyavastushu || 50 ||
By worshipping the Sun that Infinite Light is meditated upon daily. All interest is gone in external things. Constant practice (this way) multiplies ones (spiritual) Power.
Sandhyāvidyāsamuditah rirāmah paramam mahah |
kalyānarāmarūpena drashtum aiccan mahāmunih || 51 ||
Sri Rama, the Absolute, coupled with the Light of Sandhya, was now desired to be seen in His (delightful) marital form by the great sage.
Kausalyā suprajā iti jagatpitroca vaibhavam |
pratyaksham anubhūyeha mithilām prasthito munih || 52 ||
The muni (Visvamitra) had a direct experience of the glory of the Father of the Universe, through (the episode of waking up Rama by) the sloka Kausalya supraja (rama). Then he set off for Mithila.
Yatraisha jagadābhāsah drashtavyas tatra rāghavah |
ato jyāyān hi purushah itīre naravigrahāh || 53 ||
Striya eveti nicitya rajodoshayutā iti |
nistraigunyam yadadvaitam vedyam divyam amūrtakam ||54||
Wherever there is appearance of universe, Rama has to be seen there. The Purusha is therefore supreme. Men are only men in form; they are women because they are defaulted by rajo-guna. What is non-dual and devoid of the three gunas is the Divine that is formless.
Yajnakundād udgatam ca rāmatejomayam brhat |
Yajnabhūmer utthitā ca sītā aktitrayātmikā || 55 ||
The great fullness of splendour that is Rama arose from the sacrificial pot (of Pāyasa). The personality of akti, that is a three-in-one form as Sita, also rose from the sacrificial land, (the land that was being tilled for Yajna).
Sīteti vāngmayī kanyā sambhūtā vedadhārane |
sākshād vedavatī nāmnā brahmajnānaprabheti sā || 56 ||
The Damsel of Speech manifested as Sita for the purpose of rejuvenating the Vedas. She was in fact known as Vedavati. She is nothing but the Splendour of Brahman-Enlightennment.
Yanmayah purushah sākshāt sarvabhūtahrdi sthitah |
svānubhuty ekamānena pranavas tasya vācakah || 57 ||
That Absolute Fullness has expressed itself in the hearts of everything living. To experience it directly one resorts to the Pranava (the syllable Aum) as Its vocal expression.
rīrāmatāpanīyārthajyotīrāma iti rutah |
smrte sakalakalyānabhājanam yatra jāyate || 58 ||
The splendour of Rama (both the word and the personality indicated by the name) is talked about in Sri-Rama-tapani (Upanishad). By the mere memory (of that name) one partakes of everything that is good.
Videho hi mahājnānī tāvevam ghatayaty athom |
ayonijāyā vishnoca vivāhe krtavān panam || 59 ||
The great seer, King Janaka, brought the two together and in the marriage of Sita and Rama really created a turning point (in the history of the universe).
Sītābhimānaputrīti rirāmāya tad arpanāt |
sarvatrābhimatīm tyaktvā svamātram avaishyate || 60 ||
(The act of Janaka in) giving away his favourite daughter to Sri Rama (indicates) the renunciation of the Ego or Possessiveness in everything and resting in Ones Self alone.
Advaitaparamām āntim labdhvā cānyan na payati |
gūdham ca vāngmayam jyotih nādabrahmani līyate || 61 ||
Having obtained the Absolute Peaceful State, one does not perceive anything else. The subtle splendour of the Fullness of Speech merges in Nāda-Brahman.
Saha svasāmbikā sītā chāyevānugatā sadā |
aktiaktimatoraikyam yathā candrasya candrikā || 62 ||
Sita was always (subtly) accompanied by the sister-Goddess Ambika, like a shadow. The Sita-Rama marriage was the (inseparable) union of Energy and the Energiser, like the moonlight with the moon.
rīrāmasannidhāne ca jāmadagnyo jadikrtah |
eko devah satyasatyam ity advaitam parāmrtam || 63 ||
In the presence of Sri Rama the son of Jamadagni (i.e., Parasurama) was immobilised. The truth of truths is that there is only One God. This supreme blissful fact of Non-duality (is vindicated).
Akshayo madhuhanteti rāma evānumoditah |
rāmah satpurusho loke anye kāpurushā matāh || 64 ||
Rama alone has been applauded as the Imperishable and Madhu-hanta (the destroyer of Madhu). In the whole world Rama is the Sat-purusha (the ideal human being for emulation). All others are only miserable creatures.
Sahasrādityasamkāam sarvaatrunibarhanam |
rāmaaktimayam bānam dhyāyed vā sarvatomukham || 65 ||
The One who looks like a thousand Suns, the one who devastates every one of the enemies, the one who has faces in all directions, such a powerful one is the arrow (of Rama)-- that has to be meditated on.
Svajjyotih sarvagam iti tatra aktih pracodanam |
anyavrittīr nirasyaiva tanmayatvam iheshyate || 66 ||
Ones inner lustre is the One that is pervading everywhere. This is what monitors the Power of the individual. All other tendencies are discarded. This attitude of one-ness (with the Absolute) is what is prescribed .
Svetarānām vāsanānām tiraskārena dhīradhīh |
pratyagjyotir vāsanayā sadā tishthati kevalah || 67 ||
The man of brave intellect discards all tendencies of the mind which take him away from the Self. He always stands rooted in the Self, the Self alone, through his conviction.
Satyam ekapadam brahma tatrāham api codaye |
iti vānī ca kaikeyyāh advaite paryavasyati || 68 ||
I am prodding you on towards Satya, Truth, which is the single base of Brahman the absolute -- says Kaikeyi (See Valmiki Ramayana, 2-14-7) Even these words of Kaikeyi end up in Non-duality.
Devadevyor mantrasāram vijnāya narakesarī |
parvatādiva nishkramya guhāyām nihitah prabhuh || 69 ||
The Lion of Men understood the essentials of the discussion betrween the King and the Queen. The Lion (in Him) now came out (of its solitude of the Palace into the Open World) (as a lion comes out) of its hiding in the cave of the mountain.
Varāharudhirābhena candanena sugandhinā |
tam vairavanasamkāam upapannam svatejasā || 70 ||
Vajrājinādidhāri ca simho giriguhāayah |
parjanyasūryacandrādi tulyoVyam sarvatomukhah || 71 ||
Ityādi rshivākyāni avatāreshvamūrtakam |
ekam hi nirgunādvaitam avācyam ca vadanty aho || 72 ||
Lo and behold! how the Rishi Valmiki speaks of the formless form, of that which cannot be spoken by words, of the attributeless non-dual singleton! Wearing the red rudraksha stones and sweet smelling sandal-paste, by his own lustre he reached the status of Kubera. Though wearing the tiger-skin and the like, the lion of the mountain-cave, looked as if he, the one who faced everything, were Indra, the Sun and the Moon, etc.
SarvalokātigoVdvaitah lokaikaaranoVvyayah |
yogivaro rājarājah sarvabhūtahrdi sthitah || 73 ||
He transcends all the worlds. He is non-dual. He is the only Refuge for all the worlds. He is imperishable. He is the Lord of Yoga. He is the King of Kings. He dwells in the hearts of everything that is living.
Dharmapālo dharmamūrtih yenedam dhāryate jagat |
sarvān paurāns tiraskrtya turagā coditā yathā |
tathā dhīvrittayah sarvāh netavyās svasukhe dhiyā ||74||
Protector of Dharma, Personification of Dharma -- by Him is the entire universe sustained. Such a One discarded the entire population of citizens (of Ayodhya) and prodded his horses away from them. So also do we have to lead our tendencies of the mind, by our intelligence, -- all for the Self.
Vāgyatāste trayah sandhyām ity advaitavibhāvanam |
vyavahārasya madhyepi ekabhāvāvagāhanam || 75 ||
Silent meditation of the Sandhya (devata or mantra) three times is a way of developing (the conviction of) non-duality. Even amidst all activities one should be (internally) immersed in the attitude of oneness.
Smāryate vaidikair dharmaih nānyah panthā iti rutih |
jalādimocanāntepi bhojane uchibhāshane || 76 ||
Advaitasmārakā mantrāh āvartyante punah punah |
rshitulya citrakūte svātmārāmo hy avasthitah || 77 ||
The Vedic religion keeps reminding you that there is no other way (for Release). During the process of eating or of social conversation or even at the end of (the daily duties of) excretion, etc., there are mantras, reminding one of Non-duality, which are repeated again and again. Thus like a sage, (Rama) lived in Chitrakuta, resplendent in His own Self.
tatpūjārtham svīkrtavān gurucoditapāduke || 78 ||
(This is the state in which) Bharata saw the Lord; (it was a sight!) He surrendered to the Lord-Guru to whom there was no equal. For His worship did he accept the sandals of the Lord, blessed unto him.
Caranau tau tu rāmasya drakshyāmi saha pādukau |
cidramir eva caranam tadyogam ca cidārnave || 79 ||
Prārthayan neva bharatah nandigrāmeVvasat sudhīh |
nivedya pādukābhyām ca rāmādvaitārnavam mahat || 80 ||
Those two lotus feet of Rama, I shall be seeing along with the sandals, so thought Bharata. The feet of the Lord are just the rays of Consciousness. Holding on to them is the union with the Ocean of Consciousness. Thus did the wise Bharata live in Nandigrama. Dedicating himself to the divine sandal-pair he was immersed in the great ocean of non-duality of Rama.
This expression Mānishāda is from the original Vālmīiki Rāmāyana (V.R.). Here the sloka itself refers to the original. Here and elsewhere in this article, in the sloka portion, wherever there is a word or expression lifted straight from the scriptures -- Rāmāyana, the Gīta, the Bhāgavatam, the Upanishads, Yoga Vāsishtam, etc. --this fact will be indicated by giving the word or expression in italics, along with a footnote which gives the source of the word. Very often the use of such original expressions will be very significant for the understanding of this work. In fact most of the times a word or phrase is lifted from the original V.R., that word or phrase is pregnant with meaning, according to the commentators of the V.R. and the author of Rāmāyana-Advayam does not obviously want to miss the pregnant words of the Ādi-kavi.
 Uttara-rāma-caritam of Bhavabhuti
 Invocatory verses for the V.R.
 The Gita, III - 43 .
 See also Sloka No.62.
 Yajur Veda
 Yoga Vāishtam
 The Gita XVIII - 20
 V.R.1 -23 - 2 (Here and elsewhere in this article, all references to V.R. are to the Valmiki Ramayana ed. by T.R. Krishnamacharya, Nirnayasagara Press, Bombay, 1913)
 V.R.2 -2 29
 Compare with the following Dhyana-mantra for the ritual recitation of V.R.:
rāmaaktimayam dhyāyed-yamogham Rāmasāyakam.
V.R. 2 - 14 - 7
 Purusha Sukta
 V.R. 2 - 99 - 25.See Footnote 15 below.
 V.R. 2-99-25. By using the two words nirikshya and gurum from this famous verse, the author subtly recalls all the pregnant meanings that commentators have built into this verse of V.R.