GitAmRta-mahodadhiH by R. Visvanatha Sastri
Shlokas 98 – 130
dehendriyAdi nAstIti vAsanAntaH praveshataH .
kumbhayecca manaH kumbhaM dhyAna-pUjA-japAdibhiH .. 98 ..
Neither the body nor the senses are real (in the absolute sense) , because vAsanAs fill them up. The mind therefore has to be filled up (‘kumbhayet’) by dhyAna, pUjA and japa.
maitryAdivAsanAbhishca svAtirikta-niShedhanAt .
svAtmaikya-j~nAna-siddhyarthaM svabhUmAnaM ca bhAvayet .. 99 ..
svabhUmani parAnande manaH saMsthApayedbudhaH .
yogena kriyate pakvaM yathAsya dhyAnayogyatA .. 100 ..
tatrApyaikAgryasiddhyarthaM kAryo.abhyAsaH punaH punaH .
anAshrite karmaphale tvahaM bhokteti vAsanA .. 101 ..
shanaiH shanaiH shAntimeti kartRRitvamapi hIyate .
nAhaM bhokteti bhAvAcca j~nAyate nityashuddhatA .. 102 ..
phaloddeshaH pravRRittiH syAt phalatyAge hi pUrNadhIH .
phalAnyacintayanneva mano yAti ca shUnyatAM .. 103 ..
saMkalpa-prabhavAH kAmAH kShIyante ca nirindhane .
agnyupAstyAdi kAryANi nityaM naimittikaM tathA .. 104 ..
yaj~no dAnaM tapaH kAryaM na tvahaMkArataH svayaM .
shiSTAchara-pramANena shAstritaM karma-yatnataH .. 105 ..
kAryameveti bhagavAn na tattyAjyaM svarUpataH .
shAstravashyatayA kAryaM sAdhyaM yat-pouruSheNa ca .. 106..
vyavasAyAtmikA buddhiH saMpAdyAbhyAsa-pATavAt .
svaratishca yathA bhUyAt svAtiriktaM ca hIyate .. 107 ..
ahaM karteti bhAvaNAM parityajyaiva karma kuryAt . tathA bhoktA.api na bhavati . ataH phala Asaktirna bhavati . kAmaH kartA nAhaM karteti shruteH tadA dukha-hetushca na bhavati ahaMkArAbhAvAt . svadharmaM cara nAham deha iti . svasvarUpAvAptihetureva dharmaH. svarUpaM brahmaiva iti brahma-nikaTam prAptaH upanayana-kAla eva . tadeva mantraM sandhyA-trayeShu Avartayannapi brahma-yaj~nAdiShu tadartha-sUcaka-sUtraM dhArayannapi svamahimA yatra nAnubhUyate tasya dharmAnuShTAnamapi tuShAvaghAta iva vRRithA shramaH..
Synopsis: The glory of one’s own Self. To obtain that is svAtmaikya-j~nAna. All the vAsanAs of association or friendship must be diverted to lead to this. The way is by the rescension of the non-Self. The wise man fixes his mind on the Infinite Bliss of the Self. Maturity comes from yoga practice again and again. Undesirous of the fruit of Karma, one does his karma with the bhAvanA: ‘I am neither the doer nor the experiencer’. Gradually one attains peace by persistent practice of this. Not thinking of the fruit of karma the mind empties itself. All desires that usually arise from the mind now vanish because of there being no fuel for them. Even the rituals like worship of agni, yajna, charity, tapas, etc. all can be done without the egoistic thought coming in. The traditional karma or duties are not to be discarded. They have to be performed. It is the mind that has to be monitored by the intellect towards this end. Scriptures ordain us to do our svadharma. Our dharma is to move closer and closer to the goal of our own Self. This Self is nothing but brahman – was taught even at the time of upanayanam. One wears the brahma-sUtra as a testimony of that initiation into brahman, but even then one forgets to do the right thing for the obtaining of the Self. When this dharma is not done, of what consequence will the performance of other dharmas be?
vairAgyaj~nAna-niShTAshcApyamRRitaM yAnti yoginaH .
sadA nAdAnusaMdhAnAddhamRRitam yAnti yoginaH .. 108 ..
manasA mana Alokya hyamRRitaM yAnti yoginaH .
svasvarUpalayo yeShAM amRRitaM yAnti yoginaH .. 109 ..
bahirantardRRishya-shAntyA hyamRRitaM yAnti yoginaH .
yatendriyAstatparAshca svamRRitaM yAnti yoginaH .. 110
amRRitaM yAntItyaupacArikameva yataH pUrvameva sadAmRRita-madhyasthA vayaM . tadbhAvanayA nairantaryAnusaMdhAnameva yogAtsiddhyati. ahaM veda na me mRRityuH iti vij~nAnaM ahaM deha iti yatj~nAnaM alpaM saMkucitaM tadeva kabalayati ..
Synopsis: Such yogis attain Immortality – This is the refrain. They read the mind by their own minds. They are immersed in their own Glory of the Self. The words: ‘attain Immortality’ is only a formal way of saying. It is the persistent and continued immersion in the thought of the Self that brings success. ‘ahaM veda na me mRRityuH’ is the vedic declaration meaning ‘I don’t know death’. The significance of this statement is that the thought ‘I am the body’ is a very narrow view of oneself and it is this thought that has to be eroded by resorting to the thought of the Self.
vyomAtItamidaM sarvaM mano vai gaganAkRRiti .
j~nAnaM yathAkAsha-kalpaM tathA brahmAdi devatAH .. 111 ..
Space pervades everything. Mind is like space. All knowledge is an effect on this mind-space – even Gods like BrahmA. ( Can some one suggest a better translation than this? – VK
Note: A further elaboration of this shloka is contained in the following two posts on advaitin by Nair-ji and Sunder-ji:
manaH prashamanopAyo yoga ityabhidhIyate .
Atmaikya-j~nAnayogasya sApta-bhUmikamuchyate .. 112 ..
The process of stilling the mind is called yoga. For the yoga of Atmaikya-jnAna, there are seven steps.
Note by VK: The several shlokas (a hundred or so) that follow dwell on these seven steps. I think the author’s source for these seven steps is the fifth chapter of “Mahopanishad” which mentions these seven steps. I have heard him say that of all the 108 Upanishads “Mahopanishad” is his most favourite Upanishad.
yoga-bhUmi-samArUDhAH brahmAtmaikatva-darshinaH .
AtmArAmA mahAtmAnaH daivIM prakRRitimAshritAH .. 113 ..
niyataM karma kurvantaH pUrvAchAra-kramAgataM .
svaprakAshA yogavidaH mahAnto bhAskarA iva .. 114 ..
The(se) great souls (who have ascended the seven steps) are well established in yoga. They have the vision of the Oneness of the Atman and brahman. They rejoice in the glory of the Atman. They are endowed with the daivI prakRRiti (of the Gita). They do the duties prescribed for them according to the norms of tradition. They are a Light unto themselves. They are the ones who know about yoga .
ekabhAvaj~nAnasyaiva sAtvikatvAt tat-pratipAdakatvAcca gItAyAH etatpratibandhakAtmaka-manasaH shAntiH yathA sAdhyate tatsAdhanameva yoga ityuchyate . vastutaH manaH gaganAkRRiti tathApi svasya gaganAkAratAM vihAya tadAropita-vyApArAsaktaM yadA bhavati tadA tatprashamanArthaM yatnaH Avashyako bhavati . gaganAkAraM manaH cidambarajyotireva amanaskaM ..
In fact the space-like character of the mind is traded by the mind for mundane attachments. It is to reverse this behaviour of the mind that effort is necessary. The knowledge of Oneness is so subtle that this character of the mind is an obstacle to that knowledge. The effort made to remove the obstacle nature of the mind is called yoga. When the mind is stilled, the space-like mind becomes the great effulgence of the space of Consciousness.
dehAtpravrajanAkhyeti prathamA bhUmikochyate .
na tvevAhamiti shloke dehapravrajanaM smRRitaM ..115 ..
The exit from the body-thought is said to be the First step (‘bhUmikA’). The shloka ‘na tvevAhaM’ (in the very beginning of the 2nd ch. of the Gita) reminds us of this First step.
Note: In mahopanishad, the first bhUmikA is mentioned as: The right desire that arises on the basis of dispassion (‘vairAgya-pUrvam-icchA’). The author’s paraphrase of this as ‘The exit from the body-thought’ is characteristic of the esoteric way in which he reads and understands all the scriptures – including epics like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Some of the the other bhUmikAs also are, in a sense, differently worded from the ones listed in the Upanishad.
nAhaM dehendriyAdIti dehAdvyutthAnamiShyate .
cidAtmani sadAnande dehArUDhAmahaMdhiyaM .. 116 ..
The conviction that ‘I am neither the body nor the senses’ is considered as ‘exit’ from the body. The ‘I’-thought here should be on the Consciousness-Bliss, that is the Atman, instead of on the body.
niveshya li~NgamutsRRijya kaivalyapadamAshritaH .
AkAsha-sadRRishe pUrNe yu~njetAtmAnamomiti .. 117 ..
Discarding even the subtle body, and ‘sitting’ in that platform of kaivalya, one unifies himself with the Atman, with the fullness like that of Space.
divyadRRiShTyA pravrajitaH kuryAt pArAyaNAdikA .
saccidrUpasya nityatvaM anyeShAm cApyanityatA .. 118 ..
Having exited by this divine illumination, keep doing all your karmas like pArAyaNa etc. that remind you of the eternity of Consciousness and the ephemerality of all else.
Note by VK: I have observed my father was doing all his ritualistic pUjas and pArAyaNas meticulously till the last day of his life.
saccidrUpA vayaM sarve deha-prANa vilakShaNAH .
saccidrUpe hyavasthAnaM dehapravrajanAt paraM .. 119 ..
Once having exited from the body-thought, we should remain in the awareness of that Consciousness – which is our real Nature. It is totally different from the body or the accessory prANas.
avinAshi ca tadrUpaM yena sarvamidaM tataM .
videhAshca vayaM sarve acchhedyatvAdilakShaNaH .. 120 ..
That real nature and form of ours is imperishable. It is that which permeates everywhere. Our form has no body, it has the characteristics like ‘uncuttable ..’ etc.
dehAdyaiH sahasaM jAtaH dehAdiShvabhimAninaH .
mRRityugrastA ime sarve ato vyutthAnamiShyate .. 121 ..
We were born with the body and the senses; and we are attached to them. But all of them are in the grip of death. That is why we have to ‘exit’ from them.
aprameyaM svasvarUpaM tanniShTo na hi muhyati .
ahaM mameti yo mohaH deha-bhrAntyA kRRito hi saH .. 122 ..
One who is established in the immeasurable Self has no delusions. The delusion of ‘I’ and ‘Mine’ arises because of the ‘I am-the-body’ thought.
gacchhAmi tiShTAmIti dehe ahaMbhAvanA mama dehaH indriyANIti mamatva-bhAvanA tatra tatra abhimAnaH sArvA janInaH evaM dehArUDhAM dhiyaM dehAdibhyaH pratinivartya cidambara-svarUpAtmA ahameva sthUla-sUkShmakAraNadeha-vilakShaNo.ahaM mahAn vyApI pratyakcidambarajyotirahaM iti bhAva-dArDhyameva dehAt pravrajanaM . etadeva prathamataH saMpAdya anantaraM gRRihAt pravrajanti prAcInAH vidvAmsaH AvashyakaM bhavedyadi tadapi deho.ahamiti buddhireva mahAsaMsAramityuktatvAt dehendriyAdiShu vairAgyaM yama iti aShTA~Ngayogasya prathama-bhUtatvAt eShA buddhiH Adau abhyasanIyA . etadarthameva karmAdi vihitaM . dehabhrAnti-parityAgapUrvaM asmAt dRRishya-jAtAt samutthAya parajyotiH prapattiH tattAdAtmyabhAvasthitireva videha-muktiryA shAstreShu pratipAdyate saiva mAmekaM akhaNDaM vyApakaM sharaNaM vrajeti antimashlokokta-tanniShTatAkhya-yogamAroDhuM prathama-sopAnaM upadeshArambha eva dvitIyAdhyAye gItaM ..
Synopsis: What does it mean to ‘exit’ from the body? The thought ‘I am doing’, ‘I am going’, ‘I am standing’ etc. is the ‘I-thought’. The thought ‘This is my body’, ‘These are my senses’ etc. is the ‘Mine-thought’. All mortals have these two thoughts. Rescinding them if one is immersed in the conviction that ‘I am Conscious-Bliss’, that will be ‘exit’ from the body-thought. This is the first step to be achieved in the Atmaikya-j~nAna yoga. Even in ashTAnga yoga, it is control of the senses (‘yama’) that is given as the first step. It is for this ‘exit’ from the body-thought that karmas have been ordained. It is directly in tune with the final teaching of the Gita where one is required to surrender everything of his to the Absolute. And the first step is therefore enunciated as ‘deha-pravrajanaM’ (exit from the body thought) right in the 2nd chapter of the Gita.
Atmaikya-j~nAna-viduShAM na shoko moha eva vA .
akhaNDastvaM mahAn bhUmA kA hAnishca tavAhave .. 123 ..
asaddeho vinAshIti adehastvaM ca svAkRRitiH .
tejasvI cAprameyo.asi kA hAnishca tavAhave .. 124 ..
janigatyAdihIno.asi ShaDvikAra-vivarjitaH .
nityaH sarvagataH sthANuH kA hAnishca tavAhave .. 125 ..
jAtasya hi dhruvo mRRityuH tvaM na jAtaH kadAcana .
anAdikAla-siddho.asi kA hAnishca tavAhave .. 126 ..
mathyate.amRRitasAraM yat vyAvahArika-vaibhave .
amRRitodadhi-rUpasya kA hAnishca tavAhave .. 127 ..
na vadhyastvaM na hantAsi j~nAnAkArasvarUpataH .
tripuTyabhAnAtpUrNo.asi kA hAnishca tavAhave .. 128 ..
yadRRicchhayA pUrva-bhAgyAt upapannastavAhavaH .
labdha-yuddhAvakAshastvaM kA hAnishca tavAhave .. 129 ..
brAhmaNAnAM tu yo nityaH mahimA tava ceritaH .
bhakto.asi me sakhA ceti kA hAnishca tavAhave .. 130 ..
Synopsis: What do you lose by fighting? There is no sorrow or delusion for one who has the Atmaikya-j~nAna. Your reality is the vast expanse. You are the Immeasurable Reality. It is the non-real body that perishes. You are beyond birth and death and the six vikAras. He who is born has to die; but You have been there from eternity. Even in the midst of mundane happenings like the turbulences of the wave only the ocean remains. You cannot be killed nor are you the killer. Devoid of the trinity of Satva, Rajas and Tamas, you are the Fullness. By your good fortune this opportunity of war has emerged. The glory of those who know brahman is also with you. You are my devotee and friend. What do you lose by fighting?
svadharma-bhUta-yuddha-karaNAt pApasaMbhavaH AgamiShyatIti yA bhrAntiH sA dehAbhimAna-kRRitA . anAdikAla-vAsanAja-bhrAntiH dhIreNa savyasAcinA parihartavyA . sharIrendriyAdi-ceShTayA cidAkAsha-bhUtastvaM kathaM spRRishyate . vAcistha-agni-shabdAt dahyate kiM . sUrya-prabhA yathA spraShTuM na shakyate tathaiva tava svarUpamapi . ataH svasvarUpaM samyak vij~nAya anubhUyatAm yuddhAdi-kAryeShu . tasmAdyuddhasveti punaruktirapi AtmanaH sarvakAryAspRRiShTatvaM dRRiDhayati . vihitaananuShTAnAt pAtityaM shrutavatA tvayA kathaM tatparityaktuM prayatyate . kutastvA kashmalamiti etAdRRishamahAviduSho bhAgyashAlinaH tava mauDhyaM sarvathA na sama~njasaM ..
Notation for Transliteration of Sanskrit words in the Comments
Ó Copyright V. Krishnamurthy Nov.15, 2006