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1. Only if brahman is the material cause of the world it is possible to know everything of the universe through the knowledge of brahman which is what is asserted in the following passages:
kasmin nu bhagavo vijnAte sarvam-idam vijnAtam bhavati
What is that, knowing which, everything becomes known?
yat-jnAtvA neha bhUyo'nyat jnAtavyam avaSishyate /
bhagavad-Gita: 7 - 2
Having known which, nothing else remains to be known.
yena aSrutam Srutam bhavati, amatam matam, avijnAtam vijnAtam
By which unheard becomes heard, uncognized
becomes cognized, unknown becomes known.
ekena mRt-piNDena sarvaM mRNmayaM vijnAtaM syAt,
vAcArambhanaM vikAro nAma-dheyaM mRttiketyeva satyaM
By one handful of earth, all earthen articles become known,
so everything that is earthen is only a play
with words (and forms), what is true is only earth.
2. bahusyaM prajAyeyeti, (May I be many, May I grow forth), says taittirIya-Upanishad, II - 6. This in so many words says that He Himself became the multiplicity of created things.
3. The next statement in taittirIya-Upanishad, tad-AtmAnaM svayaM akuruta, says more. It means: That itself manifested itself. Here the use of the two words 'AtmAnaM' and 'svayaM' both meaning 'itself' shows that there exists no other cause. So the Universe is only a modification of brahman. What kind of modification it is, is the only thing that the two major schools of Philosophy debate about. For an elaboration of this point, go to the paragraph beginning with 'To sum up' in Difference and non-Difference.
4. There is a standard statement in the Upanishads that 'all these beings were born from this', the word that is being used here for brahman, being 'yat'. cf. taittirIya-U. III-1:
yato vA imAni bhUtAni jAyante
This word is a connective pronoun like 'which' used to indicate an antecedent noun. 'Yat' is a self-substituting entity. Panini's grammar gives a special meaning to this word, as prakRti. We know prakRti is the power of brahman, which is what becomes the universe in the presence of brahman.
5. The classical statement: (Chandogya-Upanishad, VI-2-2):
ekaM eva advitIyaM brahma /
brahman is One only, with no second.
This says there is no supporting entity, therefore there is no other efficient cause; and secondly it says there is nothing other than brahman, therefore there is no other material cause.
July 31, 99 ©Copyright V. Krishnamurthy Home Contents Next