YogAmRtam : 50 to 72
sharaNyamiti yadvastu ekAkAramakhaNDitaM .
khAdapyatitarAM sUkShmaM sarva-tyAgena labhyate .. 50 ..
adRRishyamashrUyamANaM jyotiragrAhya-rUpakaM .
tapomayena manasA gRRihyamANaM hi tatsvayaM .. 51 ..
jyotiirasAmRRitam brahma sarvAbhibhava-hetukaM .
svAtiriktaM cha mithyeti brahma-pUrNatvataH svayaM .. 52 ..
sarvaloka-sharaNyamiti ekameva tattvaM svayaM jyotiH sarva-bhAna-kAraNaM . indriyAbhiragrAhyaM tat . amRRita-rasAnubhavenaiva vedyaM svAtiriktAsahaM . tena tyaktena bhu~njIthA iti Isha-shrutiH ..
Synopsis: The one refuge of all the universe is the single foundational principle of The Self. That is what lightens up everything. It is subtler than Space. Anything other than the Self is a mithyA. It cannot be grasped by the senses. A mind full of tapas is necessary. Only by surrendering everything that is non-Self, can that nectar be ‘tasted’. Ishopanishad may be recalled.
amanastAM yadA yAti brahma-vRRikShaH prakAshate .
sanAtano.ayamachalaH eko vyApaka uchyate .. 53 ..
pashyatyadvayamekaM cha brahma-vishvamidaM jagat .
ayaM lokastadantashcha tenaiva kabalIkRRitaH .. 54 ..
tenaiva puruSheNeti pUrNa-ekatva-siddhaye .
buddhau dRRiShTashchAnya-vRRikShaH loka-vRRikShAdvilakShaNaH .. 55 ..
Urdhva-mUlo hyayaH shAkhaH sarobimbita-vRRikShavat .
asatya eSha AbhAsaH na tvayaM pAramArthikaH .. 56 ..
saMsAra-vRRikShashchedyo.ayaM nAtmA hanti na hanyate .
evaM cha dRRiDhabhAvena nAhaM dehendriyAdayaH .. 57 ..
acchhedyo brahma-vRRikSho hi atadvRRikShAshrayaH sadA .
oMkArashshAshvato vRRikShaH yanmAtrA sujagatsthitiH .. 58 ..
atad-vRRikSho mano-vRRikShaH manashchhedyo mahAniti .
manasaH pariNAmaishcha manaH shaktiH khiliikRRitA .. 59 ..
dhyAyato viShayAn pumsaH saMgadoShA anekashaH .
manaso nigrahaH kAryaH shrutiyuktyanubhUtidaH .. 60 ..
brahma-vanaM brahma sa vRRikSha AsIt iti divi tiShTatyekaH . iti sva-mahimAnameva anubhavati brAhmaNaH . manasaH aj~nAna-kAryatvAt avastveva tat . na sAhyenApi hRRidaye sadrUpaM vidyate manaH iti mahopaniShacchhrutyA marIchyudakavatbhrAnti-kRRitasya manasaH nigrahaH bhramaH yataH bhrAntyapohe manaH nigrahaM vinaiva nashyati . sva-kalpita-manaH svAkhaNDatva-vij~nAne svasminneva layaM prApnoti ..
Synopsis: The One Eternal unmoving that pervades everything shines as a colossus (brahma-vRRikShah) when the mind itself ceases to be the mind. The non-dual oneness of brahman is then seen to have ‘swallowed’ this universe. This colossal ‘tree’ is seen by the same puruSha in the buddhi, as distinct from the universe. It has its roots upward, like the reflection of the tree in the bank seen in the river. This reflection is not real. The samsAra-tree has to be cut asunder. The Atman however can neither be cut nor destroyed. The ‘bhAva’ that does this is the conviction ‘I am not this body or the senses’. The colossus of the brahma-tree is the tree of ‘Aum’ by which the whole is sustained. The tree of the non-Self is just the tree of the mind. It is the mind that has to be cut asunder. By thinking of sense-objects this will never happen. It is the mind that has to be controlled by reason and by shruti. Recall the vedic passage: ‘Brahman is the forest; Brahman is the Tree. The colossal stands unique’. It tantamounts to saying that The Self alone is there and nothing else. As the mahopanishad says, it is the mind that creates the delusion of water-in-mirage. The creation of the mind by its own ignorance has to be negated. The mind itself is a projected entity from the Self. By the universality and indivisibility of the Self, the created mind along with its own creations have all to be sublated.
Yoga-raMdhita-karmANaH hRRidiyoga-vibhAvite .
yogino yaM prapashyanti yogesho harireva hi .. 61 ..
ekasyaivAnusaMdhAne sAdhakAH kArikoktayaH .
ityuddhRRitaishcha yaiH shlokaiH prakaTIkriyate manaH .. 62 ..
shrIgauDapAdakAchAryaiH kArikAH kRRitA iti tAnyeva vAkyAni udAhriyante mananArthaM ..
Synopsis: In this context of the yoga of the heart (‘hRRidi-yoga) the shlokas of the KarikAs of Gaudapadacharya are recalled below
Special note added by VK: These shlokas, that are either extracts of whole lines from Mandukya KarikA or are slight modifications of such shlokas with the same words and spirit of the text of Mandukya Karika, are very important for the understanding of the subtle difference between the yogic samAdhi and the Atmaikya-j~nAna-yoga of Vedanta. I therefore attach here some supplementary remarks made by Swami Nikhilananda of the Ramakrishna Ashram, while translating Acharya Sankara’s Bhashyas of these Karika shlokas. These remarks will also show why the author of YogAmRRitam chose to quote Gaudapada verbatim in his work.
Atma-satyAnubodhena manastattvaM cha chintayet .
nAtma-bhAvena nAnedaM na svenApi kathaM cha na .. 63 ..
‘In the light of Realisation of the truth that is the Self’ (Mandukya Karika: 3-32 - a) , one should think about the nature of the mind. ‘This manifold does not exist as identical with Atman nor does it ever stand independent by itself. (M.K.: 2-34 - a)
Note by VK: The identity of the Real with the Unreal is not possible. The Real alone exists. The rope alone exists. There is no snake and so there is no question of its being identical with the rope.
manassa~Nkalpite dRRishye mana eva charatyaho .
manaso hyamanIbhAve dvaitaM naivopalabhyate .. 64 ..
The mind projects itself and sees what it projects. When the mind ceases to be the mind, there cannot be any duality. (M.K. 3-31 - b)
svApnaM vishvaM yathA nAsti tathaivehApi jAgaraM .
viShayo yatra nAstIha cittaM taM ca kathaM spRRishet .. 65 ..
Just as there is no dream-world so also there is no world even in the waking state. When the objects are not there what can the mind dwell on?
VK: cf. M.K.2 – 31
saMspRRishya vastvabhAvAcca cittameva na jAyate .
nigRRihItasya manasaH nirvikalpasya dhImataH .. 66 ..
The mind does not go anywhere because there is nothing for it to go to. (This is so) for the brave ones endowed with discrimination whose mind is under control and is free from all ideation. (M.K.3-34 - a)
Note : Swami Nikhilananda, commenting on the Shankara Bhashya of this verse, draws our attention to the fact that Shankara in his Bhashya of Brahma Sutra 2.1.9 and in other places, puts Yogic samAdhi and deep sleep under the same category.
[In Shankara bhashya of Brahma Sutra 2.1.9 he says *yathA hi suShupti-samAdhyAdau api satyAM svAbhAvikyAM avibhAga-prAptau mithyA-j~nAnasya anapoditatvAt pUrvavat punaH prabodhe vibhAgo bhavati*, meaning: *As in natural slumber and samAdhi though there is a natural eradication of differences, owing to the persistence of the unreal nescience, differences occur over again when one wakes up*].
suShupte lIyate tacca nigRRihItaM na lIyate .
manaso nigrahAyattaM abhayaM sarva-yoginAM .. 67 ..
upAyena nigRRihNIyAt vikShiptaM kAma-bhogayoH .
suprasannaM laye caiva yathA kAmo layastathA .. 68 ..
Mind loses itself in deep sleep; but when controlled (by Atmaikya-jnAna-yoga) does not lose itself. (M.K. 3-35 - a) ‘The fearlessness of yogis is dependent on (their mechanical) control of the mind’. (M.K. 3-40 - a). ‘By the pursuit of proper means one should bring under discipline the mind distracted by desires and enjoyment as also the mind that is in peace in sleep. For sleep is as bad as desire.. (M.K. 3-42)
laye saMbodhayeccittaM vikShiptaM kShamayet punaH .
nishcalaM nishcaraccittaM ekIkuryAt prayatnataH .. 69 ..
yadA na lIyate cittaM na ca vikShipyate punaH .
ani~NganamanAbhAsaM niShpannaM brahma tattadA .. 70 ..
‘When the mind is dormant, wake it up; when it scatters, calm it down’. (M.K. 3-44 - a). ‘By proper effort it must be unified to be neither dormant, nor scattered’. (M.K. 3-45 - b) . ‘When the mind is neither dormant nor dispersed, motionless and does not appear in the form of objects, that is when it is in brahman’. (M.K. 3-46)
Quote (from Swami Nikhilananda):
This is the warning given against pursuing the Yogic Samadhi as the state of the highest spiritual realisation. The mind seeking Truth and frightened at the immensity of effort necessary for its realisation seeks relief in Samadhi. The Acharya exhorts us to practice discrimination even when the mind passes into the passivity of Samadhi and to extricate from that state by cultivating the spirit of non-attachment to any pleasure experienced in the state of samadhi. The object of life is not to enjoy any bliss arising out of inactivity as one experinces in samadhi or deep sleep, but to know the real nature of the Self.
The yogic method may be followed with certain advantage by the student of mediocre intellect who wants to turn his turbulent mind from the pursuit of external objects. The yogic method gives him control over his mind But even in such a case Yoga serves only a temporary or subordinate purpose.
In the state of samadhi, the yogi fails to see that the non-dual brahman alone exists. He seeks samadhi because he believes in the existence of the mind as separate from Atman, and therefore tries to control it. By some mechanical means he brings the mind to a state of inactivity and thus makes himself free from all worries. But this is not the Vedantic goal of Truth.
‘na ca vikShipyate punaH’: ‘not dispersed again’: This steadiness is quite different from the condition of samadhi. In this steady condition the mind realizes the non-dual brahman everywhere.
Note by VK as supplement to the above quote: In the light of my understanding of the author of yogAmRRitam, I would humbly change the underlined word ‘realizes’ by ‘is one with’.
evaM cittam ca taddRRishyaM yathA svApnamavastukaM .
dharmAssarve ajA eva ekaM j~nAnaM ajAcalaM .. 71 ..
Thus the mind , its activities and its creations are all like dream-objects. The entities that are supposed to have been born are not born in reality. And the unique Knowledge (of the Self) is the firmest of the unborn.
cittaM vApi tadartho vA na jAtashca savAsanaM .
avastu gRRihyate mouDhyAt abhUtAbhiniveshataH .. 72 ..
The mind or its contents are non-entities (‘avastu’) . Only by Ignorance we take them as existing (separate from brahman).
Atmaiva sat . manaH asat . nAsato vidyate bhAvaH . tannigRRiha iti mRRitasarpa-prahAravat . kadalIvane rAtrau sthANAveva kadalIvRRikShe coraM kalpayitvA tasmAt yathA bibheti tathA svakalpitasaMsArAcca kila bibheti janaH . mAyA-kalpita-manaH-kalpanaiva jagat . apUrvadeshakAla padArthAdayaH kalpyante kila svapne . antarvilIne ca manasi jagaditi kathaivAstamayate supti-mUrcAdiShu . jalashUnya-marIcikAyAM agAdhatA-vicAravat shUnyAtmakaM manaH kathaM nigRRihItavyaM iti kimartho.ayaM vicAraH kAkadanta-parIkShAvat . savAsanasya manaso.apyabhAvAt pUrNAmRRita-mahodadhau manonAsha-vAsanAkShayau sukhameva bhavataH etAvatI vidyaiva Atmaikya-j~nAna-yogaH iti bhAShyate ..
Synopsis: Mind being non-real, its creation, the cycle of births and deaths is also non-real. Just like out of ignorance one mistakes a tree in a plantain grove to be a thief in the dark and is afraid of the apparition, so also we create the samsAra out of our mind and keep worrying about it. Just as dream events merge back in the mind from where they were created, the entire universe merges into the mind. When there is nothing real, what is it that one worries about? It is like ‘measuring’ the depth of the water in a mirage! So the entire mind with all its supposed aggregate of vAsanAs is simply to be negated and then there is nothing but bliss. This vidyA is the Atmaikya-j~nAna-yoga, says the Bhashya of the Acharya.
Notation for Transliteration of Sanskrit words in the Comments
Ó Copyright V. Krishnamurthy Nov.14, 2006